Caterpillar Fuel and injection system
The Caterpillar fuel system is designed to supply the Caterpillar engine with fuel, as well as its storage and cleaning.
The structure of the Caterpillar fuel system includes a fuel tank, a fuel pump, a fuel filter, an injection system that are connected in series by fuel lines.
The high-pressure fuel pump Caterpillar (Caterpillar HP pump) is one of the main components of the diesel injection system. Caterpillar Pump, performs, as a rule, two main functions: injection under pressure of a certain amount of fuel; regulation of the required timing of the injection. With the advent of battery-operated injection systems, the injection timing control function is assigned to electronically controlled injectors.
The incoming fuel is cleaned in a Caterpillar fuel filter. The fuel filter of the fuel system of diesel engines has a pressure reducing valve that regulates the working pressure in the system. Excess fuel is diverted from the valve through the fuel drain line. With a certain periodicity, the fuel filter assembly or, just, the Caterpillar filter element is replaced.
The Caterpillar high purity fuel filter is the most vulnerable place in the fuel system, because it is its capacity that is broken due to low temperature. To warm up the Caterpillar fine filter, heaters of a shroud (overhead) type are used.
The Caterpillar injection system is designed to form a fuel-air mixture by fuel injection.
The fuel system works as follows. When the ignition is switched on, the fuel pump pumps the fuel into the system. When passing through the fuel filter, it is cleaned. Then the fuel enters the injection system, where the spraying and the formation of the fuel-air mixture occurs.
A feature of diesel fuel is an increase in viscosity with a decrease in temperature, which is accompanied by turbidity, crystallization and further solidification. With a significant increase in viscosity, the normal operation of the fuel system is disrupted, up to the complete cessation of the supply of diesel fuel. To counteract these negative factors on the Caterpillar Heavy Equipment diesel heaters are used.
Diesel fuel heaters perform, as a rule, two functions:
heating of diesel fuel at engine start-up (preheating);
maintaining a certain temperature of diesel fuel when the engine is running (march heating).
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